CCC Online Learning - Introduction to internet and www
A server is a computer that provides data to other computers. The entire structure of the Internet is based upon a client-server model. Web server helps to deliver web content that can be accessed through the Internet. The most common use of web servers is to host websites, as the internet is not only used to fetch the information but there are other uses such as gaming, data storage or running business applications.
A web server commonly known as HTTP server or application server is a program that serves content using the HTTP protocol. This content is generally in the form of HTML documents, images, and other web resources, but can include any type of file.
Search engines are the programs which are needed to extract the information from the internet. They play a very important role in our daily routine, as today for each and every information we are dependent on internet.
Cloud Computing is distributed computing over a network, and has the ability to run a program or application on many connected computers at the same time.
It is used, where various computing concepts that involve a large number of computers are connected via real-time communication network such as the Internet.
Types of Servers
1. Mail Server
2. Application Server
3. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Server
4. Database Server
5. Domain Name System (DNS) Server
Mail Servers provides a centrally-located pool of disk space for network users to store and share various documents in the form of emails. Since, all the data is stored in one location, administrators need only backup files from one computer.
An application server acts as a set of components accessible to the software developer through an API defined by the platform itself. For Web applications, these components are usually performed in the same running environment as its web server(s), and their main job is to support the construction of dynamic pages.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Server
FTP uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server. FTP users may authenticate themselves in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission username and password must be encrypted using FTP and SSL.
A database server is a computer program that provides database services to other computer programs or computers using client-server model. Database management systems frequently provide database server functionality, and some DBMSs (e.g., MySQL) depend on the client-server model for database access.
Domain Name System (DNS) Server
A name server is a computer server that hosts a network service for providing responses to queries. It maps a numeric identification or addressing component. This service is performed by the server in response to a network service protocol request.
The collection of web pages on the World Wide Web that is accessed by its own Internet address is called a Web site. Thus, a Web site is a collection of related Web pages. Each Web site contains a home page and contains other additional pages. Each Web site is owned and updated by an individual, company, or an organization.
A Web page also known as Electronic Page, is a part of the World Wide Web. It is just like a page in a book. The basic unit of every Web site or document on the Web is a Web page containing the information. A Web page can contain an article, or a single paragraph, photographs, and it is usually a combination of text and graphics.
A static web page often called a flat page or stationary page, is a web page that is delivered to the user exactly as stored. A static web page displays the same information for all users, such versions are available and the server is configured to do so. Such web pages are suitable for the contents that never or rarely need to be updated.
A dynamic web page is a web page which needs to be refreshed every time whenever it opens in any of the web browsers to display the updated content of the site.
A browser is a software that lets you view web pages, graphics and the online content. Browser software is specifically designed to convert HTML and XML into readable documents.
The most popular web browsers are: Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, Opera and UC Browser.
The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol, uses Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Transport Control Protocol (TCP) for managing the security of a message transmission on the Internet. The “sockets” term refers to the sockets method of passing data back and forth between a client and a server program in a network or between program layers in the same computer. SSL uses the public-and-private key encryption system, which also includes the use of a digital certificate.
URL’s, or ‘uniform resource locators’, are the web browser addresses of internet pages and files. It is the way to locate a file or document on the Internet. The URL specifies the address of a file and every file on the Internet has a unique address. It works with IP addresses to give a name, location to web pages. Web software, such as your browser, use the URL to retrieve a file from the computer on which it resides.
Format of a URL
Every URL has three parts to address a page or file:
1. Protocol which ends with a ‘//:’
2. Host computer which ends with web extensions such as .com,.org etc.
3. Filename or page name which displays the related information.
When we have to communicate with anyone, then we need to follow the same language, so that communication can be done in an effective manner. In the same way ,whenever there is need to exchange data or information among different or same type of networks on internet, they need to follow same set of rules.
Types of Protocols
TCP/IP -Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol
FTP - File Transfer Protocol